discuss the theory of human evolution

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The Out of Africa theory holds that Homo sapiens … There were four main stages of human evolution. Parents pass adaptive genetic changes to their offspring, and ultimately these changes become common throughout a population. The Gesture Theory of Language Origin - "Speculation about how languages originate and evolve has had an important place in the history of ideas, and it has been intimately linked to questions about the nature of the signed languages of the deaf and human gestural behavior in general. Darwin's Theory of Evolution - Natural Selection While Darwin's Theory of Evolution is a relatively young archetype, the evolutionary worldview itself is as old as antiquity. Humans began to evolve about seven million years ago, and progressed through four stages of evolution. Nuts and bolts classification: Arbitrary or not? All species or organisms have originated through the process of biological evolution. The savannah hypothesis states that hominins were forced out of the trees they lived in and onto the expanding savannah; as they did so, they began walking upright on two feet. In his book 'The Origin of Species'1859 he showed that human evolution has occurred through the process of natural selection. They are then found either on the surface (exposed by rain, rivers, and wind erosion) or by digging in the ground. Paleoanthropology is a subfield of anthropology, the study of human culture, society, and biology. This process involved the gradual development of traits such as human bipedalism and language, as well as interbreeding with other hominins, which indicate that human evolution was not linear but a web. The only extant members of the human tribe, Hominini, belong to the species Homo sapiens. Since the process of human evolution is so long and varied, Sussman and Hart decided to focus their research on one specific species, Australopithecus afarensis, which lived between five million and two and a half million years ago and is one of the better known early human species. In this system, modern humans are classified as Homo sapiens. The Toba catastrophe theory states that there was a near-extinction event for early humans about 70,000 years ago. (book by Richard Potts and Chris Sloan). Although they had larger brain capacity and interbred with humans, they eventually died out. These humans may have been bipedal, meaning they walked upright on two legs. Homo heidelbergensis appeared about 800,000 years ago, and modern humans, Homo sapiens, about 200,000 years ago. Usually, the remains were buried and preserved naturally. While generalist species spread out when environmental conditions change, specialist species become more specialized and have a greater rate of evolution. The theory that improving cognitive capabilities would allow hominins to influence local groups and control resources. Yes, scientists call it the “theory of evolution”, but this is in recognition of its well … Species of modern humans populated many parts of the world much later. Coordinating fine hand movements needed for tool use may have led to increasing brain capacity. However, some people find the concept of human evolution troubling because it can seem not to fit with religious and other traditional beliefs about how people, other living things, and the world came to be. It includes genetics, population biology, anatomy and physiology, and embryology, among others. Comparison of skull features among early humans.A comparison of Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo floresiensis and Homo naledi skull features. They lived on … Humans are primates. What is Human Relations Theory of Management? A theory is an idea about how something in nature works that has gone through rigorous testing through observations and experiments designed to prove the idea right or wrong. For instance, people first came to Australia probably within the past 60,000 years and to the Americas within the past 30,000 years or so. Australopithecus. Human cultural traits—behaviors, ideas, and technologies that can be learned from other individuals—can exhibit complex patterns of transmission and evolution, and researchers have developed theoretical models, both verbal and mathematical, to facilitate our understanding of these patterns. Religious beliefs and science were closely intertwined in Victorian England. They suggest that personality comes out of Darwin's concepts of natural and sexual selection. - Darwin's Theory of Evolution is the widely held notion that all life is related and has descended from a common ancestor: the birds and the bananas, the fishes and the flowers -- all related. Humans and the great apes (large apes) of Africa -- chimpanzees (including bonobos, or so-called “pygmy chimpanzees”) and gorillas -- share a common ancestor that lived between 8 and 6 million years ago. The theory that hominins were forced out of the trees they lived in and onto the expanding savannah; as they did so, they began walking upright on two feet. A comparison of the skeletal structures of gibbons, humans, chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans. HIV. Darwin himself confessed that it was "absurd" to … When it comes to explaining the emergence of modern humans, researchers generally subscribe to one of two hypotheses. The ability to communicate complex thoughts was beneficial for human survival, and, as a result, language acquisition abilities evolved and advanced through the process of natural selection. By studying fossilized bones, scientists learn about the physical appearance of earlier humans and how it changed. Agreeing with Professor de Waal, Professor Lynn Margolis argued that human forms of togetherness, compassion, religion, and planning can be explained through evolution, while Professor Geoffrey Miller purports that evolution can even explain art. A number of theories examine the relationship between environmental conditions and human evolution. Early humans first migrated out of Africa into Asia probably between 2 million and 1.8 million years ago. The fourth stage features the genus Homo, which existed between 1.8 and 2.5 million years ago. Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates—in particular genus Homo—and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, which includes the great apes. Primate development diverged from other mammals about 85 million years ago. Scientists classify each species with a unique, two-part scientific name. The fossil of this genus was first discovered in 1924 in South Africa. Various divergences among apes, gibbons, orangutans occurred during this period, with Homini (including early humans and chimpanzees) separating from Gorillini (gorillas) about 8 millions years ago. They believed that it came from somewhere else in outer space and they named this phenomenon‘panspermia’. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Adventures in the Rift Valley: Interactive, Digital Archive of Ungulate and Carnivore Dentition, Teaching Evolution through Human Examples, Members Thoughts on Science, Religion & Human Origins (video), Science, Religion, Evolution and Creationism: Primer, Burin from Laugerie Haute & Basse, Dordogne, France, Butchered Animal Bones from Gona, Ethiopia, Neanderthal Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA. 2003). The Evolution of Religious Belief: Seeking Deep Evolutionary Roots, Laboring for Science, Laboring for Souls:  Obstacles and Approaches to Teaching and Learning Evolution in the Southeastern United States, Public Event : Religious Audiences and the Topic of Evolution: Lessons from the Classroom (video), Evolution and the Anthropocene: Science, Religion, and the Human Future, Imagining the Human Future: Ethics for the Anthropocene, I Came from Where? Information contained in the DNA can change by a process known as mutation. Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years. Neo-Darwinism (Modern Synthetic Theory and Punctuated Equilibrium) 7. Ancient Greek philosophers such as Anaximander postulated the development of life from non-life … Instead, it changes the inherited means of growth and development that typify a population (a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular habitat). A primate of the family Hominidae that includes humans and their fossil ancestors. Approaching the Science of Human Origins from Religious Perspectives, Religious Perspectives on the Science of Human Origins, Submit Your Response to "What Does It Mean To Be Human? In short, Darwin’s theory of evolution is the process of natural selection by which nature selects the fittest, best-adapted organisms to reproduce, multiply and survive.It is also called adaptation, where traits most likely to help an individual survive are labeled adaptive. Research shows that the first modern humans appeared 200,000 years ago. One reason no vaccine against HIV has yet been found is that HIV is one of the fastest evolving … Multiregional evolution holds that the human species first arose around two million years ago and subsequent human evolution has been within a single, continuous human species. (Grades 6-8), Comparison of Human and Chimp Chromosomes (Grades 9-12), Hominid Cranial Comparison: The "Skulls" Lab (Grades 9-12), Investigating Common Descent: Formulating Explanations and Models (Grades 9-12). It is possible that a focus on eating meat, and cooking, allowed for brain growth. Over time, genetic change can alter a species' overall way of life, such as what it eats, how it grows, and where it can live. Dr. Rick Potts provides a video short introduction to some of the evidence for human evolution, in the form of fossils and artifacts. The way particular genes are expressed – that is, how they influence the body or behavior of an organism -- can also change. Other important human characteristics -- such as a large and complex brain, the ability to make and use tools, and the capacity for language -- developed more recently. Bipedalism resulted in skeletal changes to the legs, knee and ankle joints, spinal vertebrae, toes, and arms. Scientists do not all agree, however, about how these species are related or which ones simply died out. Neanderthals were a separate species from humans. The scientific establishment of the theory of evolution was mainly the work of Charles Darwin. Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Differences in size or appearance between the sexes of an animal species. By studying this type of evidence, archeologists can understand how early humans made and used tools and lived in their environments. Scientists have discovered a wealth of evidence concerning human evolution, and this evidence comes in many forms. Then came the theory of spontaneous generation of life durin… Larger brain size, also called encephalization, began in early humans with Homo habilis and continued through the Neanderthal line (capacity of 1,200 – 1,900 cm3). A video showing evolution from early animals to modern humans. Archeological evidence refers to the things earlier people made and the places where scientists find them. Pre-Darwinian Theories. Darwin's theorising on evolution took place over more than twenty years! Here’s a brief summary of the evidence that supports the theory of evolution by natural selection: Biochemistry is the study of the basic chemistry and processes that occur in cells. Scientists talk about evolution as a theory, for instance, just as they talk about Einstein’s explanation of gravity as a theory. The main points of this theory are: Bone size, shape, and markings left by muscles tell us how those predecessors moved around, held tools, and how the size of their brains changed over a long time. Paleoanthropologists search for the roots of human physical traits and behavior. The process of evolution involves a series of natural changes that cause species (populations of different organisms) to arise, adapt to the environment, and become extinct. When scientists discover a fossil skull, they compare it to skulls that have already been identified as particular early human species. It’s just a theory. Evolution occurs when there is change in the genetic material -- the chemical molecule, DNA -- which is inherited from the parents, and especially in the proportions of different genes in a population. In the first edition of \"On the Origin of Species\" in 1859, Charles Darwin speculated about how natural selection could cause a land mammal to turn into a whale. One of the earliest defining human traits, bipedalism -- the ability to walk on two legs -- … Humans and chimps then separated about 7.5 million years ago. The theory of evolution is one of the fundamental keystones of modern biological theory. The beginnings of agriculture and the rise of the first civilizations occurred within the past 12,000 years. Genes affect how the body and behavior of an organism develop during its life, and this is why genetically inherited characteristics can influence the likelihood of an organism’s survival and reproduction. The essay aims to critically discuss the study of human evolution which includes some of the species that evolved over the years before we now have our species, the history of psychology and the different prominent figures that are responsible for psychology being the field it is today. Scientists also debate over how to identify and classify particular species of early humans, and about what factors influenced the evolution and extinction of each species. Early human fossils and archeological remains offer the most important clues about this ancient past. The fossils of early humans who lived between 6 and 2 million years ago come entirely from Africa. As a hypothetical example, Darwin used North American black bears, which were known to catch insects by swimming in the water with their mouths open:\"I can see no difficulty in a race of bears being rendered, by natural selection, more aquatic in their structure and habits, with larg… Thus, during periods of intense aridification, hominins also were pushed to evolve and adapt. The theory of evolution predicts patterns of species not just over time in the fossil record, but also in the distribution of species today around Earth—the study of which is called biogeography. Homo habilis, which used stone tools and had a brain about the size of a chimpanzee, was an early hominin in this period. Because islands provide isolated habitats where there is little chance of interbreeding with mainland species, evolutionary theory p… Conditional Evolution See chapter III about criticismof these theories of human origin and evolution. Many early human species -- certainly the majority of them – left no living descendants. The turnover pulse hypothesis states that extinctions due to environmental conditions hurt specialist species more than generalist ones. Human evolution, the process by which human beings developed on Earth from now-extinct primates. For years researchers have puzzled over whether adaptation plays a major role in human evolution or whether most changes are due to neutral, random … Human evolution. Chickens, chimpanzees, and you - what do they have in common? … This paper attempts to document the entire history of the discipline of Human Resource Management from a holistic perspective. The first, between four and seven million years ago, consisted of the proto hominins Sahelanthropus, Orrorin and Ardipithecus. These changes may be related to pair bonding for long-term raising of offspring. The Red Queen hypothesis states that species must constantly evolve in order to compete with co-evolving animals around them. Given the abundant evidence supporting the theory of biological evolution, it is highly probable that evolution has occurred and is still occurring today. Many advanced traits -- including complex symbolic expression, art, and elaborate cultural diversity -- emerged mainly during the past 100,000 years. Other adaptations include lessening of body hair, a chin, a descended larynx, and an emphasis on vision instead of smell. Evolution does not change any single individual. A brief presentation of the general ideas about evolution and theories of human origin such: 1. As a result, the offspring inherit those genetic characteristics that enhance their chances of survival and ability to give birth, which may work well until the environment changes. At some point in history, early man developed language skills beyond grunting and pointing. Research shows that the first modern humans appeared 200,000 years ago. As organisms change and new variants thrive, species emerge, and evolve. The concept of evolution is as ancient as Greek writings, where philosophers speculated that all living things are related to one another, although remotely. This was followed by Homo erectus and Homo ergaster, who had double the brain size and may have been the first to control fire and use more complex tools. Generally, it is believed that hominids first evolved in Africa and then migrated to other areas. Until that time, there was only talk of Scientific Management, which mainly focused on productivity, efficient division of labour and workers as an extension of machinery. Describing an animal that uses only two legs for walking. The immediate period after World War Two saw a different approach in organisational studies. The second stage, around four million years ago, was marked by the appearance of Australopithecus, and the third, around 2.7 million years ago, featured Paranthropus. One of the earliest defining human traits, bipedalism -- the ability to walk on two legs -- evolved over 4 million years ago. Most scientists currently recognize some 15 to 20 different species of early humans. Advantages to be found in bipedalism include the freedom of the hands for labor and less physically taxing movement. October 28, 2004 -- When Darwin's skeptics attack his theory of evolution, they often focus on the eye. The exact nature of the evolutionary relationships between modern humans and their ancestors remains the subject of debate. The field involves an understanding of the similarities and differences between humans and other species in their genes, body form, physiology, and behavior. Creationism 2. Neanderthals were a separate species from humans. This species encompasses all archaic human forms such as H. erectus and Neanderthals as well as modern forms, and evolved worldwide to the diverse populations of anatomically modern humans ( Homo sapiens ). The biochemistry of all living things on Earth is incredibly similar, showing that all … The differences between species on islands compared to mainlands provide a compelling example of evolution. We Make Tools: “It is in making tools that man is unique,” anthropologist Kenneth Oakley wrote in a … Nevertheless, many people have come to reconcile their beliefs with the scientific evidence. The theory that there was a near-extinction event for early humans about 70,000 years ago. ", "Shaping Humanity: How Science, Art, and Imagination Help Us Understand Our Origins" (book by John Gurche), What Does It Mean To Be Human? Thousands of human fossils enable researchers and students to study the changes that occurred in brain and body size, locomotion, diet, and other aspects regarding the way of life of early human species over the past 6 million years. The ability of the human brain to continue to grow after birth meant that social learning and language were possible. Paleoanthropology is the scientific study of human evolution. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years. For many people, paleoanthropology is an exciting scientific field because it investigates the origin, over millions of years, of the universal and defining traits of our species. Evolution, theory in biology postulating that the various types of living things on Earth have their origin in other preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to … Although their brains were larger, Neanderthals had fewer social and technological innovations than humans, and they eventually died out. Humans have reduced sexual dimorphism, or differences between males and females, and hidden estrus, which means the female is fertile year-round and shows no special sign of fertility. Theory of Lamarck 4. Bipedalism, or walking upright, is one of the main human evolutionary adaptations. In turn, this resulted in shorter gestation (as babies need to be born before their heads become too large), and more helpless infants who are not fully developed before birth. There was, however, no evidence to support these claims.The early scientists and Greeks believed that life on earth never began on earth itself. The evolution and development of HRM will be traced right from the pre-historic times through to the postmodern world. Human evolution began with primates. Humans began to evolve about seven million years ago, and progressed through four stages of evolution. Walking upright better allows for long distance travel and hunting, for a wider field of vision, a reduction of the amount of skin exposed to the sun, and overall thrives in a savannah environment. Humans acquired symbolic culture and language about 50,000 years ago. The theory that extinctions due to environmental conditions hurt specialist species more than generalist ones, leading to greater evolution among specialists. The main human adaptations have included bipedalism, larger brain size, and reduced sexual dimorphism. Now you get to be the scientist! https://www.boundless.com/world-history/textbooks/boundless-world-history-textbook/, To understand the process and timeline of human evolution. The theory that species must constantly evolve in order to compete with co-evolving animals around them. What can lice tell us about human evolution? A separate species, Homo neanderthalensis, had a common ancestor with humans about 660,000 years ago, and engaged in interbreeding with Homo sapiens about 45,000 to 80,000 years ago. Intelligent Design 3. To what extent does Darwinian Evolutionary Theory "Explain" Human Nature? They seek to discover how evolution has shaped the potentials, tendencies, and limitations of all people. These remains include bones, tools and any other evidence (such as footprints, evidence of hearths, or butchery marks on animal bones) left by earlier people. In olden days, people believed that the universe and life on it was an act and result of God’s creation. Skeletal structure of humans and other primates. Human sexes still have some differences between them, with males being slightly larger and having more body hair and less body fat. Basically, evolutionary psychologists are interested in the origins of human personality. History of the Theory of Evolution Evolution implies a change in one or more characteristics in a population of organisms over a period of time. Genes represent the segments of DNA that provide the chemical code for producing proteins. Modern humans have a brain volume of 1250 cm3. Evolutionary psychologists may argue that advanced language skills can lead to po… Most significantly, the pelvis became shorter and rounded, with a smaller birth canal, making birth more difficult for humans than other primates. Human evolution took place as new genetic variations in early ancestor populations favored new abilities to adapt to environmental change and so altered the human way of life. They entered Europe somewhat later, between 1.5 million and 1 million years. Theory of Natural Selection of Darwin 5. Laws of Mendel 6. At its most basic level, evolutionary psychology explains skills that we consider to be relatively simple and common to most humans, such as language. Humans first evolved in Africa, and much of human evolution occurred on that continent. The social brain hypothesis states that improving cognitive capabilities would allow hominins to influence local groups and control resources. Physical and genetic similarities show that the modern human species, Homo sapiens, has a very close relationship to another group of primate species, the apes. In animals that reproduce sexually, including humans, the term species refers to a group whose adult members regularly interbreed, resulting in fertile offspring -- that is, offspring themselves capable of reproducing. The theory that the savannah was expanding due to increasingly arid conditions, which then drove hominin adaptation. An evolutionary increase in the complexity and/or size of the brain. This idea was expanded in the aridity hypothesis, which posited that the savannah was expanding due to increasingly arid conditions resulting in hominin adaptation. The Theory of Evolution in Biology The theory of evolution is often seen as the main overarching theme that ties all topics of biology together. Although they had larger brain capacity and interbred with humans, they eventually died out. Fossil skull, they compare it to skulls that have already been identified as particular early species! -- can also change is one of the fundamental keystones of modern humans populated parts... 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Find them brain size, and evolve scientists have discovered a wealth of evidence, archeologists can how... Contained in the form of fossils and artifacts through to the postmodern.. Among early humans.A comparison of skull features among early humans.A comparison of Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo and. Of gibbons, humans, and arms, early man developed language skills grunting... Place over more than generalist ones development diverged from other mammals about million!, to understand the process and timeline of human evolution has occurred through the process by which beings... Can understand how early humans about 70,000 years ago earliest defining human traits, bipedalism -- the ability walk. Africa into Asia probably between 2 million years ago, consisted of evolutionary. And less body fat code for producing proteins humans made and the rise of the theory that improving cognitive would!

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